Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome: are risk factors the same in preterm and term infants?

Abstract
Objective: To analyze respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) incidence and risk factors at different gestational age.

Methods: We considered data from 321 327 infants born in Lombardy, a Northern Italian Region. We computed multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for RDS by dividing infants in early- and moderate-preterm, late-preterm and term infants.

Results: Low-birth weight is the main risk factor for RDS, with higher odds ratio in term births. The risk was higher in infants delivered by cesarean section and in male, for all gestational age. Pathological course of pregnancy resulted in increased risk only in late-preterm and term infants. Maternal age and multiple birth were not associated with increased risk in any group. Babies born at term after assisted conception were at higher risk of RDS.

Conclusion: Our analysis suggests as some risk factors do not influence RDS incidence in the same way at different gestational age.

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