Objective: Compare the oral colonization profile of premature infants admitted at NICU before and after doing oral care routine with sterile water versus no intervention. Methods: It was a randomized clinical trial composed of 37 premature infants admitted at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) with a birth weight (BW) <1500 g. They were distributed in two groups: the study group (SG) with 15 patients who received an oral hygiene with sterile water; and a control group (CG) (no intervention) formed by 22 patients. Primary outcome was oral colonization profile before and after doing oral care. Result: In the study group, the number of patients colonized by the Gram-positive bacteria at the beginning of the study was 53% versus 40% at the end (p=0.10). For Gram negative, 40% at the study’s beginning versus 60% at the end (p=0.18). In the control group, the number of colonized patients for the Gram-positive bacteria at the onset of the study was 54.5% versus 32% patients at the end (p=0.24). For Gram negative, 32% patients at the start of the study versus 77% at the end (p = 0.003). Conclusion: There is a significant increase of the Gram-negative flora in those patients without oral care.
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