Cytomegalovirus-Induced Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in an Extreme Preterm Infant: Recognition and Therapy Leading to Recovery

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare disease that can be triggered by cytomegalovirus, a relatively common infectious exposure to neonates. The clinical presentation is common to many acute illnesses seen in extreme premature infants; however, there are key clinical and laboratory findings that can lead to the diagnosis.

A case of an extreme premature infant of 25 weeks’ gestation who developed cytomegalovirus-induced HLH is presented. Current published protocols that are used in pediatric cancer were adapted for use in a premature infant, which led to remission of HLH and eventual discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit.

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