Babies who are born prematurely and have to have help with their breathing often develop breathing problems later on. Kathleen A. Kennedy, from the University of Texas Medical School at Houston, led a team of researchers reviewing evidence from a neonatal research network. Advances such as antenatal steroids and surfactant replacement have dramatically improved premature babies’ survival but not the incidence of lung problems (bronchopulmonary dysplasis (BPD)). Other advances such as vitamin A and avoiding mechanical ventilation have had smaller effects on the incidence of BPD alone while postnatal steroids have a clear beneficial effect on BPD but the best preparation, dose and timings for giving them aren’t known.
You can read the abstract of this article here.